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Optimized Adaptive Control for a Biomass Plant


Biomass Boiler Diagram



The process of electricity generation in the Biomass Power Station (BPS) at Sangüesa is carried out by burning biomass bales in the combustion chamber of a moving grate boiler (see diagram). The high temperature combustion gases circulating inside the boiler heat, in turn, the fluid circulating inside the superheaters, the steam drum and the economiser generating high temperature live steam at the outlet from the last superheater. The resulting live steam passes to the turbines where finally power is generated for delivery to the grid.


The changes in humidity and calorific value of fuel, typical of this kind of plant, greatly affect the dynamic response to the power generated, the amount of air used, and the amount of fuel consumed. Additionally, The context of operations changes frequently during the day, principally due to steam blowing for various automatic cleaning processes, filter cleaning and shutdown or reductions in the minimum speed of one of the feed lines for maintainance or excessive biomass humidity. Likewise, the heat transfer losses efficiency with time due to progressive fouling of the boiler.


The ADEX system attained the production objective of the plant by increasing the stability and reliability of its operation and minimizing the specific consumption of biomass.
 


ADEX Optimized Adaptive Control System



ADEX multivariable control strategy is shown in the adjoin block diagram and described in the following:


• A power optimization block (upper left) computes the desired power SP from the operating conditions and taking into account the produced power, the total combustion air, the speed of the induced draught fan and the power upper limit set by the operator.


• An ADEX multivariable controller for power, oxygen and steam pressure manipulates combustion air, biomass feed and turbine valves opening.


• An ADEX single-input single-output controller for the suction pressure inside the boiler acting on the speed of the induced draught fan
 


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